Titanium dioxide thin films have many interesting properties and are used in various applications. TiO2 has a high refractive index, and thus the TiO2 film can be used as a photocatalyst. TiO2 is very hard and chemically resistant and can be used as a self-cleaning and anti-bacterial film. TiO2 has a high dielectric constant and is used in microelectronics. It can also be used in biomedical coatings due to the biocompatibility of TiO2.
Although many deposition techniques have been used to synthesize TiO2 films, magnetron sputtering is still the preferred method for large area coatings. This is due to the versatility, uniformity, ease of expansion, and high throughput of the sputtering process. However, the inherent instability indicated by the hysteresis effect limits the achievable composition or substantially reduces the deposition rate. In general, closed loop control of the reaction gas pressure must be employed to achieve high deposition rates and optimum film properties.
There is a sputtering method using the TiO1.8 sputtering target to deposit a TiO2 film. The main reason for using such a target is its conductivity, which makes DC sputtering possible. The use of a TiO1.8 target resulted in a significantly higher deposition rate compared to the deposition of a TiO2 film using a pure metal titanium target, and the results also showed no hysteresis.
Modeling from TiOx target sputtering indicated that the high deposition rate is related to the presence of lower Ti oxide (low oxide) on the target surface. Most of the suboxides can be held on the surface without hysteresis, thus achieving a high deposition rate. Therefore, it can be predicted that a further increase in the deposition rate can be obtained by adjusting the O/Ti ratio of the target. For a sufficient oxygen content in the target, a hysteresis-free deposition process can be achieved. Any stoichiometric TiO 2 coating can be produced without the need for partial pressure control. All films were X-ray amorphous and showed comparable refractive index values.
The deposition rate of stoichiometric TiO2 from the suboxide target is about five times higher than the metal target operating in the compound mode. The rate of growth from 100% to 65% of the sputtering target is less than expected, only increasing by about 10%. The result is strongly influenced by the residual atmosphere. This is primarily due to the low deposition rate due to the small target size and low power density.
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