Titanium and its titanium alloy are widely used in industry due to their superior properties, high strength, light weight, strong corrosion resistance and good weldability. In particular, it has good biocompatibility, which makes it more widely used in the oral field.
Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used as dental implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The neck of the implant is made of smooth titanium and titanium alloy, which helps the fibrous tissue wrap around to form a good epithelial cuff area, thus preventing plaque accumulation. The porous structure of the implant body part increases the surface area of the implant and provides conditions for the attachment and growth of bone tissue, which is conducive to implant retention. The cell experiment results of ZnHA/TiO2 biological coating showed that the osteoblasts were well attached to the ZnHA/TiO2 coating, and the proliferation capacity of the cells on the material surface was enhanced. Better cell attachment inhibits bacteria from attaching to the surface of the implant to some extent.
Biological hard tissue replacement materials
Titanium and titanium alloy, as a substitute material for biological hard tissue, can be applied in the aspects of inlays, crowns, bridge materials, prostheses and artificial roots. In recent ten years, titanium and titanium alloy have a broader prospect as new dental prosthetics with the development of science and technology. At present, the metal used for making denture bracket mainly consists of Au, Ni-Cr, Co-Cr, stainless steel and other alloys, which have good biocompatibility but are expensive and the color is not ideal, and other alloys contain harmful elements such as Ni, Co, and Cr. As a new kind of dental restorative material, titanium has a good affinity with human bone epithelium and connective tissue, and its mechanical properties can be compared with other dental alloys. Titanium has gradually become a more and more important material indenture prosthesis, and become an economical and biocompatible substitute for removable and fixed denture alloys.
High-temperature ion nitriding
In recent years, implant surface treatment technology has developed rapidly, including X-ray injection, mechanical grinding, and plasma sputtering, sandblasting or acid etching. The hardness of pure titanium and titanium alloy can be increased by 7 times and 2 times respectively by high-temperature ion nitriding on titanium surface, and the annual corrosion rate of titanium after nitrification is only one-third of that of non-nitrification and has no toxicity to surrounding tissues. The oxide film formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloy can be corroded by the most commonly used dental caries preventive agent, preventive polishing and fluoride damage, and such corrosion products can cause degeneration and necrosis of tissue cells, non-specific inflammation, allergic reactions and even the formation of tumors. Corrosion of alloy material will not only affect the color and strength of the prosthesis but also cause adverse biological reactions such as cytotoxicity and allergy.
Titanium and titanium alloys have been used as biological materials in the human body for their excellent biocompatibility and excellent corrosion resistance. As dental implants, titanium is widely used in the human body, and there are numerous orthopedic operations made of titanium.